Joel Kotkin explains at New Geography:
Perhaps the most troubling impact will be on the workforce. In 2050, the number of children in China under 15 is expected to be 60 million lower than today, approximately the size of Italy’s population. It will gain nearly 190 million people 65 and over, approximately the population of Pakistan, which is the world’s sixth most populous country.For decades, China brutally enforced (often with forced abortions and sterilizations) a policy which limited couples to only having one child. This policy has led to millions of sex-selection abortions in a country where many families favor boys over girls. Unfortunately, women in China who want to have more than two children will still face the same punishments women who wanted two children faced for decades.